All About Hagia Sophia – Istanbul’s Most Controversial Monument

    All About Hagia Sophia – Istanbul’s Most Controversial Monument
    Hagia Sophia
    Last updated: July, 2019

    For me the first thing that comes to mind when talking about Istanbul, or Turkey, is definitely Hagia Sophia. I can’t remember when I first heard about Hagia Sophia. It might have been way back during my high school years. But what I can remember is that I always wanting to see it. It took me 40 years to finally get to Istanbul, but I finally managed to see the marvelous Hagia Sophia.

    A Turbulent History

    Hagia Sophia had more than its fair share of troubles. Earthquakes tried its resilience, fires almost burned it down and Crusaders assaulted it and stole its treasures.

    The original basilica was built by Emperor Constantine the Great in 325 on the foundations of a pagan temple. Emperor Justinian I built it in its present form in 537. After finishing the construction Justinian is said to have exclaimed: “Solomon, I have outdone thee!” And indeed, when seeing the grandeur and beauty of this church, you can only agree that this is one of the most majestic churches ever built. 

    Hagia Sophia is a Controversial Monument - as seen on
    Hagia Sophia at Night

    Hagia Sophia remained the seat of the Orthodox Patriarch of Constantinople for over 900 years. In 1204, the Crusaders unmercifully attacked Constantinople and desecrated the church. They also replaced the Patriarch of Constantinople with a Latin bishop. This event marked the division of the Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches. After the attack, most of Hagia Sophia’s riches have been taken to Rome. All these treasures are in display today in the treasury of St. Mark’s Basilica in Venice. 

    For 57 years, the Crusaders took charge of the city and designated Hagia Sophia a Roman Catholic cathedral. When the Byzantines/Orthodox recaptured the city, the cathedral became again an Orthodox places of worship. But the Orthodox could not support the church which by the early 1400s, had fallen into ruin.

    Hagia Sophia remained a functioning church until the conquest of Constantinople, in 1453. Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror, amazed at its beauty, converted the basilica into his imperial mosque. And since the Islamic religion forbids the visual depiction of figures in mosques, he covered all the beautiful mosaics and paintings with plaster.


    Mosaic representing Christ and Emperor Constantine IX Monomachos and Empress Zoe
    Mosaic representing Christ and Emperor Constantine IX Monomachos and Empress Zoe


    Mosaic representing the Virgin and Child and Emperor John II Komnenos and Empress Irene
    Mosaic representing the Virgin and Child and Emperor John II Komnenos and Empress Irene

    In 1923, Turkish president Mustafa Kemal Atatürk drove foreign countries out of Turkey and secularized the country. The Orthodox wanted their church returned to them. Muslims wanted to keep it as their mosque. Atatürk, however, decreed it a museum – Ayasophia Museum– that would be open to everyone. And so it remained.

    Visiting Hagia Sophia

    By general consensus, Hagia Sophia is the most important Byzantine structure and one of the world’s great monuments. Its grandiose structure was meant to impress and it surely does! Before you enter the church you should take time to admire the impressive building from the outside. Walk around and enjoy the stunning architecture. The church can be seen from many points in Istanbul, but perhaps the best close up view is from the beautiful garden next to it.

    Once inside, you will notice that Hagia Sophia has a classical basilica plan. The main ground floor is shaped as a rectangle and is covered by a central dome. The inside of the dome was once decorated with gold mosaic tiles, but is now covered with Koranic inscriptions. The first thing that will strike you when entering the church are the huge marble pillars and the delicate mosaics. The columns used in the construction came from the long-abandoned and destroyed Temple of Artemis in Ephesus. 

    Hagia Sophia's ground floor
    Hagia Sophia, Ground Floor

    To appreciate the grandeur of this church you’ll have to go up to the gallery and look at it from above. To reach the upstairs gallery, you will have to walk on a stone paved ramp. On the upper floor you will also see some of the surviving mosaics that once decorated Hagia Sophia.

    The upstairs gallery of Hagia Sophia
    The Upstairs Gallery

    The walls above the galleries and the base of the dome are surrounded by windows, which in the daylight hide the supports and give the impression that the canopy floats in the air.

    The Narthex Area
    The Narthex Area

    Interesting Hagia Sophia Facts

    • Despite what you may think, the name Sophia has nothing to do with the female name. “Sophia is in fact the Greek word for wisdom. Therefore the true meaning of Hagia Sophia is “The Church of the Holy Wisdom.” 
    • The dome was the largest ever constructed and it held the record until Michelangelo’s dome on top of the St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome.
    • Being the principal mosque of Istanbul, Hagia Sophia served as a model for many mosques, such as the Blue Mosque or the Süleymaniye Mosque.
    • The four minarets of the church have been built at different times and by different sultans. The first one, the brick minaret, was erected by Mehmed II, the second one was added by Bayazid II, and the last two by Selim II.
    • Since first built in 325 AD, the church structure suffered 3 destructions: it burned down completely twice and was partially destroyed during an earthquake.
    • The Crusaders’ attack on Hagia Sophia in 1204 had a big role in the Great Schism – the splitting of the Eastern (Orthodox) branch from the Western (Roman) one.
    • Hagia Sophia started as Christian church, then morphed into a mosque and afterwards into a museum.
    Hagia Sophia

    In 1985 Hagia Sophia was declared a world heritage site by UNESCO. A few years later a major restoration project began that seems to be on-going, so be prepared to see scaffolds all over the church. Hagia Sophia is open every day, except Mondays. The winter visiting hours are from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. and in summer from 9:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m.

    Hagia Sophia (Ayasofya in Turkish) is now officially a museum. It is indisputably Istanbul’s main draw and Turkey’s most-visited monument, whose neutral status synbolizes the secular nature of the modern Turkey. But is that accurate? Several years ago, hundreds of protesters gathered in front of Hagia Sophia to pray and show their desire that Hagia Sophia be turned back into a mosque. So what do you think: should Hagia Sophia be turned into a mosque again?