Christmas in Romania undoubtedly the most tradition-filled time of the year. Many of these traditions are very old and quite unique to Romania. Others are newer and most likely borrowed from other European countries. Although some customs may differ from region to region, Christmas in Romania is celebrated in the same manner throughout the country.
During the Communist era the religious meaning of Christmas was banished in Romania. “Christmas Time” became “Winter Celebrations,” and “Old Father Christmas” became “Old Man Frost.” Romanians however continued to secretly celebrate the birth of Jesus Christ in their families and observe the old Christmas customs and traditions.
CHRISTMAS TRADITIONS IN ROMANIA
Just like anywhere else in the Christian world, Christmas in Romania is celebrated on December 24-25. Yet the traditions go far beyond exchanging gifts and decorating the Christmas tree.
St. Nicholas (Mos Niculae)
The Christmas season in Romania is kicked off by the arrival of St.Nicholas (Mos Niculae) on December 6.
This is one of the most awaited Christmas traditions in Romania for the children. On this night they know they will receive small gifts in their boots from St. Nicholas. But only if they were good! Otherwise, instead of presents they will receive a stick!
On the evening of December 5 every child must clean a pair of their shoes and leave it by the door, hoping that Old St. Nick will leave a present for them. The gifts are usually small and symbolic, like crayons, or watercolors, often just oranges or chocolate. But children enjoy them just the same.
Christmas Fasting (Postul Crāciunului)
Most Romanians practice Eastern Orthodoxy and are very religious people. The Christmas Fasting starts on November 14 and ends on Christmas Day. During this 40-day period people prepare themselves to properly celebrate the birth of Jesus Christ.
This preparation includes fasting, confessing and Holy Communion. Fasting means that you can’t eat any meat, eggs or dairy products during this time. Although the fasting lasts for six weeks, it’s surprising to see how many people consciously respect this religious practice.
The Pig Slaughtering (Tāierea porcului)
Romanians really love to eat pork and know how to prepare it. They usually celebrate Christmas with lots of pork dishes, so one of the most important tradition at this time of year is the slaughtering of the pig.
Each year on Saint Ignat Day (St. Ignatius) –December 20th– Romanian families in rural areas sacrifice one of their pigs and use the meat for cooking the Christmas meals.
This is one of the oldest Christmas traditions in Romania. The ritual may seem gruesome, but its purpose is not “entertainment.” It is the old-fashioned way of killing an animal in order to feed the family. Even though people in the cities no longer do this ritual, in the countryside the custom is still a long-lasting Christmas tradition.
The ceremony starts early in the morning with the sacrifice of the animal and continues with the cutting of the meat and melting of the fat. They use lmost every single part of the pig, including the guts that are used for making sausages.
For three days, all women in the family help prepare the dishes for the Christmas feast. This tradition is one of my least favorite things about Christmas. I hate to see these poor animals slaughtered!
Decorating the Christmas Tree
This particular Christmas tradition is common to many Christian countries, so it’s not specific to Romania. The Christmas celebration really begins when it’s time to decorate the Christmas tree.
Romanians usually buy their Christmas tree just a couple of days before Christmas and they decorated together, as a family, on Christmas Eve. The Christmas tree stays in the house till January 7.
Christmas Eve (Noaptea de Ajun)
Christmas Eve is the most anticipated day of the year in Romania. It’s the night when Santa Claus (Mos Craciun) arrives at every house carrying his big bag of presents. Very few children in Romania manage to sleep that night hoping to catch a glimpse of Santa as he places the packages under the Tree.
Santa is coming from a far away land at the North Pole. He is old and fat and can barely move under the weight of that big bag, but somehow he never missed a date in all these years. He will surely come tonight too.
The Caroling (Colindatul)
A very important part of the Christmas festivities in Romania is the caroling (“colindatul”), a tradition that goes back to Medieval Times. Romanian Christmas carols use tunes and themes that vary according to their region of origin. Despite the variety, the most beloved carols are the ones glorifying the birth of Jesus.
Throughout the Christmas season groups of small children and students, especially those in the villages, go from door to door singing beautiful Romanian carols. Carolers usually receive pretzels, cookies or other goodies like nuts or fruits.
The Star Carol (Steaua)
The caroling tradition comes in different forms, depending on the area of the country. In the big cities you’ll mostly hear big coirs performing in churches.
In smaller towns and villages however, young children keep up the tradition by singing very old and more specific carols. The most traditional one is The Star Carol (Steaua).
On Christmas Day carolers walk through the streets of the towns and villages holding a large wooden star (“Steaua.”) The star that displays an image of the Nativity is wrapped up in aluminum foil, adorned with bells and colorful ribbons and attached to the end of a broom stick.
The “Goat” Tradition (Capra)
In the countryside, the caroling also includes dancing and some ritual performances, like the ‘Goat’ (Capra) dance. Men and boys with drums and brass instruments wander through villages playing their traditional music, as one man – dressed in a stylized goat costume – performs a sort of goat dance.
Besides the Goat costumes, there are other costumes as well, like bears, or horses. These animals symbolize the evil forces that people want to chase away from the village.
The carolers wearing grotesque masks come with large bells, drums, and whips and start dancing and making lout noises intended to scare away the evil forces.
These masks are very popular among visitors, as they make great souvenirs from Romania.
The Christmas Feast
Christmas dinner in is a rich, multi-course meal consisting of various kinds traditional Romanian dishes. Romanians spend Christmas Day around the table with all the family, after attending the church service. It’s one of their most beloved Christmas practices.
Some of these are: pork sausages, “sarmale” (pickled cabbage leaves stuffed with a mixture of pork, beef and rice); smoked pork knuckle with beans sauce; “piftie” or pig’s trotters (a jelly dish with pieces of meat and garlic).
For desert, you’ll always have “cozonaci” (a cake filled with nuts and raisins) and other delicious sweets. And to wash all this rich food down, Romanians will have lots of red wine and “tuica” (a strong traditional spirit that contains 40-45% alcohol and is made from plums).